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Technical Data Sheet

Alkalinity Relationships

In water chemistry, the carbon dioxide (CO2=)/carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3-), carbonate (CO3=), and hydroxide (OH-) content affect the pH of the water.  Graphically, the  bicarbonate and carbonate ionic species exist toward the middle of the pH scale between the hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions as follows: 

Ionic Species Hydrogen Ion (H+)                         Hydroxide Ion (OH-)
100%                            
75%       C             C2      
50%                            
25%            

B

             
0%            

 

     

H

     
  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

                                                                                 <----P Alkalinity to pH 8.3                

                                                <---M Alkalinity to pH 4.3

Legend
C Carbonic Acid 
C2 Carbonate 
B Bicarbonate
H Hydroxide

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