COST REDUCTION THROUGH CREATIVE CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
Technical Data Sheet
In water chemistry, the carbon dioxide (CO2=)/carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3-), carbonate (CO3=), and hydroxide (OH-) content affect the pH of the water. Graphically, the bicarbonate and carbonate ionic species exist toward the middle of the pH scale between the hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions as follows:
<----P Alkalinity to pH 8.3
<---M Alkalinity to pH 4.3
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